# 编译 PX4 软件

对于模拟目标和硬件目标,可以在控制台上或 IDE 中生成 PX4。

PX4 源代码存储在 PX4/Firmware (opens new window) 存储库中的 GitHub 上。 若要在您的计算机上获得最新的版本,请在终端中输入以下命令:

初次编译之前,我们会使用终端环境编译一个模拟目标。 这使我们能够在进入真正的硬件和 IDE 之前验证系统设置。

# 下载 PX4 源代码

The PX4 source code is stored on Github in the PX4/PX4-Autopilot (opens new window) repository. To get the very latest version onto your computer, enter the following command into a terminal:

git clone --recursive https://github.com/google/bloaty.git /tmp/bloaty \
      && cd /tmp/bloaty && cmake -GNinja . && ninja bloaty && cp bloaty /usr/local/bin/ \
      && rm -rf /tmp/*


This is all you need to do just to build the latest code. GIT Examples > Contributing code to PX4 provides a lot more information about using git to contribute to PX4.

# 初次编译(使用 jMAVSim 模拟器)

First we'll build a simulated target using a console environment. This allows us to validate the system setup before moving on to real hardware and an IDE.

导航到 Firmware 目录,并使用以下命令启动 jMAVSim

make px4_sitl jmavsim

This will bring up the PX4 console below:

PX4 Console (jMAVSim)

The drone can be flown by typing:

pxh> commander takeoff

jMAVSim 界面

无人机可以通过输入 commander land 着陆, 整个模拟可以通过 CTRL+C(或输入 shutdown)来停止。

Flying the simulation with the ground control station is closer to the real operation of the vehicle. Click on a location in the map while the vehicle is flying (takeoff flight mode) and enable the slider. This will reposition the vehicle.

QGroundControl GoTo

PX4 can be used with a number of other [Simulators](../simulation/README.md), including [Gazebo Simulation](../simulation/gazebo.md) and [AirSim Simulation](../simulation/airsim.md). These are also started with *make* - e.g.

-- Build files have been written to: /home/youruser/src/Firmware/build/px4_fmu-v4_default
[954/954] Creating /home/youruser/src/Firmware/build/px4_fmu-v4_default/px4_fmu-v4_default.px4

# 基于NuttX / Pixhawk 的飞控板

# 获取特定发行版本



/data/ftp/internal_000/px4 -s /home/root/px4.config


In the example above the first part of the build target px4_fmu-v4 is the firmware for a particular flight controller hardware and default is the configuration name (in this case the "default" configuration). The default is optional so you could instead do:

make px4_fmu-v4_default upload



-- Build files have been written to: /home/youruser/src/PX4-Autopilot/build/px4_fmu-v4_default
[954/954] Creating /home/youruser/src/PX4-Autopilot/build/px4_fmu-v4_default/px4_fmu-v4_default.px4

Build instructions are given in the documentation for the individual flight controller boards. The following list shows the build commands for just the Pixhawk standard boards:

  • Pixhawk 1 with 2 MB flash: make px4_fmu-v3_default

"PX4" 可执行文件位于目录 build/emlid_navio2_cross/ 中。 请确保您可以通过 ssh 连接到 RPi,请参阅 介绍如何访问您的 RPi (opens new window)

# 将固件烧录到飞控板

Append upload to the make commands to upload the compiled binary to the autopilot hardware via USB. For example

export AUTOPILOT_HOST=192.168.X.X


Erase  : [====================] 100.0%
Program: [====================] 100.0%
Verify : [====================] 100.0%
[100%] Built target upload

# 其他飞控板

然后,通过 ssh 连接并运行(以 root 身份):

# 将固件烧录到飞控板

The command below builds the target for Raspberry Pi 2/3 Navio2.

# 跨编译器生成

要在骁龙启动后立即运行 PX4,您可以将启动添加到 rc.local

sudo ./bin/px4 -s px4.config

成功生成,,然后执行 PX4 将会看到如下内容:

cd Firmware
make emlid_navio2_native # for native build


The value of the environment variable should be set before the build, or make upload will fail to find your RPi.

Parrot Bebop (opens new window)的支持还处于早期阶段,应当格外小心。

sudo ./build/emlid_navio2_native/px4 ./posix-configs/rpi/px4.config

下面的命令构建了 Linux 和 DSP 端的目标。 两个可执行文件都通过 muORB 进行通信。

Then upload it with:

<br />______  __   __    ___
| ___ \ \ \ / /   /   |
| |_/ /  \ V /   / /| |
|  __/   /   \  / /_| |
| |     / /^\ \ \___  |
\_|     \/   \/     |_/
px4 starting.


cd /home/linaro
./px4 mainapp.config

# 本机生成

If you're building directly on the Pi, you will want the native build target (emlid_navio2_native).

cd PX4-Autopilot
make emlid_navio2_native # for native build

The "px4" executable file is in the directory build/emlid_navio2_native/. Run it directly with:

cd /home/pi && ./bin/px4 -d -s px4.config > px4.log

运行 DSP 调试监控器:

______  __   __    ___
| ___ \ \ \ / /   /   |
| |_/ /  \ V /   / /| |
|  __/   /   \  / /_| |
| |     / /^\ \ \___  |
\_|     \/   \/     |_/
px4 starting.

# 自动启动

注意:在 Mac 上可以使用 nano-dm (opens new window)

adb shell

# OcPoC-Zynq Mini


# Parrot Bebop

This section shows how to build for the Qualcomm Snapdragon Flight.

# 编译


If you use the Qualcomm ESC board (opens new window) (UART-based), then please follow their instructions here (opens new window). If you use normal PWM-based ESCs boards, then you may continue to follow the instructions on this page.

The commands below build the targets for the Linux and the DSP side. Both executables communicate via muORB.

make atlflight_eagle_default upload

To load the SW on the device, connect via USB cable and make sure the device is booted. Run this in a new terminal window:

adb push ROMFS/px4fmu_common/mixers/quad_x.main.mix  /usr/share/data/adsp



Note that this will also copy (and overwrite) the two config files mainapp.config (opens new window) and px4.config (opens new window) to the device. Those files are stored under /usr/share/data/adsp/px4.config and /home/linaro/mainapp.config respectively if you want to edit the startup scripts directly on your vehicle.

该部分介绍 高通骁龙飞控 (opens new window) 如何编译:

adb connect

# 运行

Run the DSP debug monitor:

adb shell
vim /etc/rc.local

{% youtube %}https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bkk8zttWxEI&rel=0&vq=hd720{% endyoutube %}


adb pull /etc/rc.local
gedit rc.local
adb push rc.local /etc/rc.local

Note that the px4 will stop as soon as you disconnect the USB cable (or if you ssh session is disconnected). To fly, you should make the px4 auto-start after boot.

# 自动启动


运行 DSP 调试监控器:

adb shell sync
adb shell reboot

注意:在 Mac 上可以使用 nano-dm (opens new window)

adb shell
chmod +x /etc/rc.local

继续使用 ADB shell 运行 PX4:

adb reboot

Make sure that the rc.local is executable:

     git clone https://github.com/PX4/Firmware.git
     cd Firmware

{% youtube %}https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0pa0gS30zNw&rel=0&vq=hd720{% endyoutube %}

adb reboot

# 用图形界面 IDE 编译

前面的部分演示了如何调用 make 来构建多个不同的目标、启动模拟器、使用 IDE 等。 本节介绍如何构造 make 选项以及如何查找可用选项。


# Qt Creator 功能

The previous sections showed how you can call make to build a number of different targets, start simulators, use IDEs etc. This section shows how make options are constructed and how to find the available choices.

The full syntax to call make with a particular configuration and initialization file is:




You can get a list of all available CONFIGURATION_TARGET options using the command below:

make list_config_targets



  • **VIEWER:**这是启动和连接的模拟器("查看器"):gazebo, jmavsim


none can be used if you want to launch PX4 and wait for a simulator (jmavsim, gazebo, or some other simulator). For example, make px4_sitl none_iris launches PX4 without a simulator (but with the iris airframe).

  • **MODEL:**要使用的 载具 模型(例如 iris (default)、rovertailsitter 等),该模型将由模拟器加载。 环境变量 PX4_SIM_MODEL 将设置为所选模型。 然后在 启动脚本 中使用该模型来选择适当的参数。
  • **DEBUGGER:**要使用的调试器:none (default)、idegdblldbdddvalgrindcallgrind。 有关详细信息,请参阅 < 0>Simulation 调试 </0>。
  • WORLD: (Gazebo only). Set a the world (PX4/sitl_gazebo/worlds (opens new window)) that is loaded. Default is empty.world (opens new window). For more information see Gazebo > Loading a Specific World.


You can get a list of all available VIEWER_MODEL_DEBUGGER_WORLD options using the command below:

% git diff
    diff --git a/boards/px4/fmu-v2/default.cmake b/boards/px4/fmu-v2/default.cmake
    index 40d7778..2ce7972 100644
    --- a/boards/px4/fmu-v2/default.cmake
    +++ b/boards/px4/fmu-v2/default.cmake
    @@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ px4_add_board(
    -               imu/mpu9250
    +               #imu/mpu9250
                    #magnetometer # all available magnetometer drivers

然后通过 文件 > 打开项目 加载根目录下的 CMakeLists.txt。

  • CONFIGURATION_TARGETVIEWER_MODEL_DEBUGGER 中的大多数值都有默认值, 因此是可选的。 比如,gazebo 相当于 gazebo_irisgazebo_iris_none
  • 如果要在其他两个设置之间指定默认值,可以使用三个下划线。 例如,gazebo___gdb 等效于 gazebo_iris_gdb
  • 您可以使用 VIEWER_MODEL_DEBUGGERnone 值启动 PX4 并等待模拟器。 例如,使用 make px4_sitl_default none 启动 PX4和使用 ./Tools/jmavsim_run.sh 启动 jMAVSim 。

可以看出,从 px4_fmu-v2_default 删除 mpu9250 驱动,可以节省 10.3KB 的 flash 空间。 它还显示了 mpu9250 驱动程序的不同部件的大小。

开启 Qt creator 之前,需要新建 项目文件 (opens new window)

# Qt creator 提供符号跳转、自动补全和编译固件的功能。

The bloaty_compare_master build target allows you to get a better understanding of the impact of changes on code size. When it is used, the toolchain downloads the latest successful master build of a particular firmware and compares it to the local build (using the bloaty (opens new window) size profiler for binaries).


This can help analyse changes that (may) cause px4_fmu-v2_default to hit the 1MB flash limit.

Bloaty must be in your path and found at cmake configure time. The PX4 docker files (opens new window) install bloaty as shown:

git clone --recursive https://github.com/google/bloaty.git /tmp/bloaty \
    && cd /tmp/bloaty && cmake -GNinja . && ninja bloaty && cp bloaty /usr/local/bin/ \
    && rm -rf /tmp/*

The example below shows how you might see the impact of removing the mpu9250 driver from px4_fmu-v2_default. First it locally sets up a build without the driver:

 (cd /home/linaro && ./px4 mainapp.config > mainapp.log)
exit 0

Then use the make target, specifying the target build to compare (px4_fmu-v2_default in this case):

% make px4_fmu-v2_default bloaty_compare_master
     VM SIZE                                                                                        FILE SIZE
 --------------                                                                                  --------------
  [DEL]     -52 MPU9250::check_null_data(unsigned int*, unsigned char)                               -52  [DEL]
  [DEL]     -52 MPU9250::test_error()                                                                -52  [DEL]
  [DEL]     -52 MPU9250_gyro::MPU9250_gyro(MPU9250*, char const*)                                    -52  [DEL]
  [DEL]     -56 mpu9250::info(MPU9250_BUS)                                                           -56  [DEL]
  [DEL]     -56 mpu9250::regdump(MPU9250_BUS)                                                        -56  [DEL]
...                                        -336  [DEL]
  [DEL]    -344 MPU9250_mag::_measure(ak8963_regs)                                                  -344  [DEL]
  [DEL]    -684 MPU9250::MPU9250(device::Device*, device::Device*, char const*, char const*, cha    -684  [DEL]
  [DEL]    -684 MPU9250::init()                                                                     -684  [DEL]
  [DEL]   -1000 MPU9250::measure()                                                                 -1000  [DEL]
 -41.3%   -1011 [43 Others]                                                                        -1011 -41.3%
  -1.0% -1.05Ki [Unmapped]                                                                       +24.2Ki  +0.2%
  -1.0% -10.3Ki TOTAL                                                                            +14.9Ki  +0.1%

This shows that removing mpu9250 from px4_fmu-v2_default would save 10.3 kB of flash. It also shows the sizes of different pieces of the mpu9250 driver.

# PX4 创建生成目标

The PX4 Firmware Version and Custom Firmware Version are published using the MAVLink AUTOPILOT_VERSION (opens new window) message, and displayed in the QGroundControl Setup > Summary airframe panel:

Firmware info

These are extracted at build time from the active git tag for your repo tree. The git tag should be formatted as <PX4-version>-<vendor-version> (e.g. the tag in the image above was set to v1.8.1-2.22.1).


If you use a different git tag format, versions information may not be displayed properly.

# 列出所有发行版本(标签) sh git tag -l

# 基于 QuRT / Snapdragon 的飞控板

Many build problems are caused by either mismatching submodules or an incompletely cleaned-up build environment. Updating the submodules and doing a distclean can fix these kinds of errors:

git submodule update --recursive
make distclean

# 在 Linux 上使用 Qt creator

The region 'flash' overflowed by XXXX bytes error indicates that the firmware is too large for the target hardware platform. This is common for make px4_fmu-v2_default builds, where the flash size is limited to 1MB.

If you're building the vanilla master branch, the most likely cause is using an unsupported version of GCC. In this case, install the version specified in the Developer Toolchain instructions.

If building your own branch, it is possibly you have increased the firmware size over the 1MB limit. In this case you will need to remove any drivers/modules that you don't need from the build.

# 在 Windows 上使用 Qt creator

MacOS allows a default maximum of 256 open files in all running processes. The PX4 build system opens a large number of files, so you may exceed this number.

The build toolchain will then report Too many open files for many files, as shown below:

/usr/local/Cellar/gcc-arm-none-eabi/20171218/bin/../lib/gcc/arm-none-eabi/7.2.1/../../../../arm-none-eabi/bin/ld: cannot find NuttX/nuttx/fs/libfs.a: Too many open files

The solution is to increase the maximum allowed number of open files (e.g. to 300). You can do this in the macOS Terminal for each session:

# 在 Mac OS 上使用 Qt creator

As of macOS Catalina 10.15.1 there may be problems when trying to build the simulator with cmake. If you have build problems on this platform then try run the following command in your terminal:

cd ~/src/Firmware
mkdir -p build/creator
cd build/creator
cmake ../.. -G "CodeBlocks - Unix Makefiles"

# Failed to import Python packages

"Failed to import" errors when running the make px4_sitl jmavsim command indicates that some Python packages are not installed (where expected).

Failed to import jinja2: No module named 'jinja2'
You may need to install it using:
    pip3 install --user jinja2

If you have already installed these dependencies this may be because there is more than one Python version on the computer (e.g. Python 2.7.16 Python 3.8.3), and the module is not present in the version used by the build toolchain.

You should be able to fix this by explicitly installing the dependencies as shown:

pip3 install --user pyserial empy toml numpy pandas jinja2 pyyaml pyros-genmsg packaging