传感器

基于 PX4 的系统使用传感器来确定飞行器状态(自稳和启用自主控制所需)。 飞行器状态包括:位置/高度,航向,速度,空速,方向(姿态),不同方向的旋转速率,电池电量等。

系统 最低要求 陀螺仪,加速度计,磁力计(罗盘)和气压计。 需要 GPS 或其他定位系统来启用所有自动模式和一些辅助模式。 固定翼和 VTOL 飞行器还应包括空速传感器(特别推荐)。

最小的传感器组合集成在 Pixhawk 系列 飞控上(并且也能存在其他飞控平台上)。 附加/外部传感器可以连接到控制器。

下面我们介绍一些传感器。 最后有链接到关于 传感器接线 的信息。

GPS & Compass

PX4 supports a number of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers and compasses (magnetometers). It also supports Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS Receivers, which extend GPS systems to centimetre-level precision.

Pixhawk 系列 控制器包括 内置 罗盘。 这对于大型飞行器(例如 VTOL ) 可能 是有用的,其中可以通过远离电源线安装Pixhawk 来减少电磁干扰。 在小型飞行器上,几乎总是需要外置罗盘。

We recommend the use of an external "combined" compass/GPS module mounted as far away from the motor/ESC power supply lines as possible - typically on a pedestal or wing (for fixed-wing).

Common GPS/compass hardware options are listed in: GPS/Compass.

GPS + Compass

空速计

Airspeed sensors are highly recommended for fixed-wing and VTOL frames.

They are so important because the autopilot does not have other means to detect stall. For fixed-wing flight it is the airspeed that guarantees lift not ground speed!

Digital airspeed sensor

For more information and recommended hardware see: Airspeed Sensors.

Tachometer

Tachometers (revolution-counter sensors) are highly recommended for rotor-wing frames because they allow the autopilot to detect stall or another rotor failure (for rotor-wing flight it is the rotation of blades that guarantees lift not airspeed or ground speed).

Digital RPM Sensor - TFRPM01A

For more information and recommended hardware see: Sensors > Tachometers.

Distance

Distance sensors are used for precision landing, object avoidance and terrain following.

PX4 supports many affordable distance sensors, using different technologies, and supporting different ranges and features. For more information see: Distance Sensors.

Optical Flow

PX4Flow is an optical flow smart camera that can track motion, and has as integrated sonar sensor. PX4 blends the sensor output with information from other position sources (e.g. GPS) to provide a more accurate position lock. This sensor can be used indoors, when no GPS signal is available.

px4flow-bottom

Some options include:

Sensor Wiring

Sensor wiring information is usually provided in manufacturer documentation for flight controllers and the sensors themselves.

In addition, see:

  • 基本组件包含飞控快速入门指南。 其包括核心传感器到特定飞控硬件的接线。
  • 飞控 主题通常包含接线信息。
  • 外设硬件包含其他传感器的文档。
© PX4 Dev Team. License: CC BY 4.0            Updated: 2020-10-26 12:32:28

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