# 驱动开发

NuttX device drivers are based on the Device (opens new window) framework.

# 创建驱动程序

PX4 几乎只消耗来自 uORB 的数据。 常见外设类型的驱动程序必须发布正确的 uORB 消息(例如: 陀螺仪、加速度计、压力传感器等)。

PX4 almost exclusively consumes data from uORB. Drivers for common peripheral types must publish the correct uORB messages (for example: gyro, accelerometer, pressure sensors, etc.).

PX4 is a reactive system and uses uORB publish/subscribe to transport messages. File handles are not required or used for the core operation of the system. Two main APIs are used: 文件句柄不是必需或用于系统的核心操作。

PX4 使用设备 ID 在整个系统中一致地识别单个传感器。 PX4 uses device IDs to identify individual sensors consistently across the system. These IDs are stored in the configuration parameters and used to match sensor calibration values, as well as to determine which sensor is logged to which logfile entry.

# 核心架构

PX4 is a reactive system and uses uORB publish/subscribe to transport messages. File handles are not required or used for the core operation of the system. Two main APIs are used:

  • Publish / subscribe 系统具有文件、网络或共享内存后端,具体取决于系统 PX4 运行。
  • The global device registry, which can be used to enumerate devices and get/set their configuration. This can be as simple as a linked list or map to the file system. 这可以像链接列表或映射到文件系统一样简单。

# 设备ID

For the example of three magnetometers on a system, use the flight log (.px4log) to dump the parameters. The three parameters encode the sensor IDs and MAG_PRIME identifies which magnetometer is selected as the primary sensor. Each MAGx_ID is a 24bit number and should be padded left with zeros for manual decoding. 这三个参数解码传感器的 ID, 并且 MAG_PRIME 区分那个磁力计作为主传感器。

这是通过 I2C 总线1 的外部 HMC5983 连接在地址 0x1E:会在日志文件中以 IMU.MagX 格式显示出来。

# 解码示例

This is the internal HMC5983 connected via SPI, bus 1, slave select slot 5. It will show up in the log file as IMU1.MagX. 它将以 IMU1.MagX 显示在日志文件中。 Each MAGx_ID is a 24bit number and should be padded left with zeros for manual decoding.

CAL_MAG0_ID = 73225.0
CAL_MAG1_ID = 66826.0
CAL_MAG2_ID = 263178.0
CAL_MAG_PRIME = 73225.0

This is the external HMC5983 connected via I2C, bus 1 at address 0x1E: It will show up in the log file as IMU.MagX.

# device ID 73225 in 24-bit binary:
00000001  00011110  00001 001

# decodes to:
HMC5883   0x1E    bus 1 I2C

根据此格式,设备 ID 是一个24bit 数字。 The device ID is a 24bit number according to this format. Note that the first fields are the least significant bits in the decoding example above.

# device ID 66826 in 24-bit binary:
00000001  00000101  00001 010

# decodes to:
HMC5883   dev 5   bus 1 SPI

And this is the internal MPU9250 magnetometer connected via SPI, bus 1, slave select slot 4. It will show up in the log file as IMU2.MagX.

# device ID 263178 in 24-bit binary:
00000100  00000100  00001 010

#decodes to:
MPU9250   dev 4   bus 1 SPI

# 设备 ID 编码

The device ID is a 24bit number according to this format. Note that the first fields are the least significant bits in the decoding example above.

struct DeviceStructure {
  enum DeviceBusType bus_type : 3;
  uint8_t bus: 5;    // which instance of the bus type
  uint8_t address;   // address on the bus (eg. I2C address)
  uint8_t devtype;   // device class specific device type
};

The bus_type is decoded according to:

enum DeviceBusType {
  DeviceBusType_UNKNOWN = 0,
  DeviceBusType_I2C     = 1,
  DeviceBusType_SPI     = 2,
  DeviceBusType_UAVCAN  = 3,
};

and devtype is decoded according to:

#define DRV_MAG_DEVTYPE_HMC5883  0x01
#define DRV_MAG_DEVTYPE_LSM303D  0x02
#define DRV_MAG_DEVTYPE_ACCELSIM 0x03
#define DRV_MAG_DEVTYPE_MPU9250  0x04
#define DRV_ACC_DEVTYPE_LSM303D  0x11
#define DRV_ACC_DEVTYPE_BMA180   0x12
#define DRV_ACC_DEVTYPE_MPU6000  0x13
#define DRV_ACC_DEVTYPE_ACCELSIM 0x14
#define DRV_ACC_DEVTYPE_GYROSIM  0x15
#define DRV_ACC_DEVTYPE_MPU9250  0x16
#define DRV_GYR_DEVTYPE_MPU6000  0x21
#define DRV_GYR_DEVTYPE_L3GD20   0x22
#define DRV_GYR_DEVTYPE_GYROSIM  0x23
#define DRV_GYR_DEVTYPE_MPU9250  0x24
#define DRV_RNG_DEVTYPE_MB12XX   0x31
#define DRV_RNG_DEVTYPE_LL40LS   0x32

# 调试

For general debugging topics see: Debugging/Logging.

# 使用操纵杆

Drivers (and other modules) output minimally verbose logs strings by default (e.g. for PX4_DEBUG, PX4_WARN, PX4_ERR, etc.).

Log verbosity is defined at build time using the RELEASE_BUILD (default), DEBUG_BUILD (verbose) or TRACE_BUILD (extremely verbose) macros.

Change the logging level using COMPILE_FLAGS in the driver px4_add_module function (CMakeLists.txt). The code fragment below shows the required change to enable DEBUG_BUILD level debugging for a single module or driver.

px4_add_module(
    MODULE templates__module
    MAIN module
    COMPILE_FLAGS
        -DDEBUG_BUILD
    SRCS
        module.cpp
    DEPENDS
        modules__uORB
    )

提示

Verbose logging can also be enabled on a per-file basis, by adding #define DEBUG_BUILD at the very top of a .cpp file (before any includes).