# 搭建你的第一个应用(Hello Shy)

本文主要说明如何创建并运行你的第一个板载应用程序。 它涵盖了 PX4 应用程序开发所需的所有基本概念和 API。

注解

为简单起见,省略了更高级的功能,如启动/停止功能和命令行参数。 这些在Application/Module Template 中有介绍。

# 系统必备组件

以下内容是您需要提前准备的:

源码PX4-Autopilot/src/examples/px4_simple_app (opens new window)目录包含本教程的完整版本,如果遇到困难可以查看。

  • 重命名 (或删除) px4_simple_app 目录。

# 最小的应用程序

在本节中,我们创建一个很小的应用程序,只是打印出来Hello Sky!。 这包括一个C文件和一个cmake定义(它告诉工具链如何构建应用程序)。

  1. 新建如下文件夹: Firmware/src/examples/px4_simple_app

  2. 在该目录中新建一个名为 px4_simple_app.c 的 C 文件:

    • 将下面的默认头部注释复制到文件页面的顶部, 该注释应出现在所有贡献的文件中!

      /****************************************************************************
       *
       *   Copyright (c) 2012-2022 PX4 Development Team. All rights reserved.
       *
       * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
       * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
       * are met:
       *
       * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
       *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
       * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
       *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
       *    the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
       *    distribution.
       * 3. Neither the name PX4 nor the names of its contributors may be
       *    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
       *    without specific prior written permission.
       *
       * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
       * "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
       * LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
       * FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
       * COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
       * INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING,
       * BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS
       * OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED
       * AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
       * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
       * ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
       * POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
       *
       ****************************************************************************/
      
    • 将下面的代码复制到头部注释的下方, 该注释应出现在所有贡献的文件中!

      /**
       * @file px4_simple_app.c
       * Minimal application example for PX4 autopilot
       *
       * @author Example User <mail@example.com>
       */
      
      #include <px4_platform_common/log.h>
      
      __EXPORT int px4_simple_app_main(int argc, char *argv[]);
      
      int px4_simple_app_main(int argc, char *argv[])
      {
         PX4_INFO("Hello Sky!");
         return OK;
      }
      

提示

函数必须以<module_name>_main格式命名并从模块中导出,如上图所示。

提示

PX4_INFO相当于输出到PX4 shell的printf(包含在px4_platform_common/log.h中)。 这里有不同的日志级别:PX4_INFOPX4_WARNPX4_ERRPX4_DEBUG。 警告和错误会额外添加到ULog并显示在Flight Review (opens new window) 中。

  1. 创建并打开一个名为CMakeLists.txt的新cmake定义文件。 复制下面的文本:
    ############################################################################
    #
    #   Copyright (c) 2015 PX4 Development Team. All rights reserved.
    #
    # Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
    # modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
    # are met:
    #
    # 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
    #    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
    # 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
    #    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
    #    the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
    #    distribution.
    # 3. Neither the name PX4 nor the names of its contributors may be
    #    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
    #    without specific prior written permission.
    #
    # THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
    # "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
    # LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
    # FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
    # COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
    # INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING,
    # BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS
    # OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED
    # AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
    # LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
    # ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
    # POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
    #
    ############################################################################
    px4_add_module(
     MODULE examples__px4_simple_app
     MAIN px4_simple_app
     STACK_MAIN 2000
     SRCS
         px4_simple_app.c
     DEPENDS
     )
    
    px4_add_module() 方法根据模块描述生成静态库。
    • MODULE块是模块的唯一固件名称(按照惯例,模块名称的前缀是src之后的父路径)
    • MAIN块列出了模块的入口点,它将命令注册到 NuttX,以便可以从 PX4 shell 或 SITL 控制台调用它。

提示

px4_add_module() 的格式可从 PX4-Autopilot/cmake/px4_add_module.cmake (opens new window)中查看.

注解

如果您对px4_add_module指定DYNAMIC选项,则会在 POSIX 平台上创建一个动态库而不是静态库(这些可以在无需重新编译 PX4 的情况下加载,并作为二进制文件而不是源代码共享给其他人)。 您的应用程序不会成为内置命令,而是生成一个名为examples__px4_simple_app.px4mod的文件。 您可以通过在运行时使用以下dyn命令加载文件来运行您的命令:dyn ./examples__px4_simple_app.px4mod

  1. Create and open a new Kconfig definition file named Kconfig and define your symbol for naming (see Kconfig naming convention). Copy in the text below:
     bool "PX4 Simple app"
     default n
     ---help---
         Enable PX4 simple app
    

# 编译应用程序/固件

应用程序的编写至此完成。 为了运行它,您首先需要确保它是作为 PX4 的一部分构建的。 应用程序被将依据目标的适当板级cmake文件添加到编译/固件中:

PX4-Autopilot/boards/px4/fmu-v4/default.cmake (opens new window)

要启用将应用程序编译到固件中,请在cmake文件中的某处为您的应用程序创建一个新行:

    examples/px4_simple_app

注解

该行已经存在于大多数文件中,因为固件中默认包含这些示例。

使用特定板的命令构建示例:

  • jMAVSim 模拟器: make px4_sitl_default jmavsim
  • Pixhawk v1/2:make px4_fmu-v2_default(或者仅使用make px4_fmu-v2
  • Pixhawk v3: make px4_fmu-v4_default
  • 其它板: 构建代码

# 测试应用(硬件)

# 将固件上传至飞控板

启用上传器,然后重启飞控板:

  • Pixhawk v1/2: make px4_fmu-v2_default upload
  • Pixhawk v3: make px4_fmu-v4_default upload

在您重启飞控板之前,它应该打印一些编译消息,并在最后打印:

Loaded firmware for X,X, waiting for the bootloader...

一旦飞控板被重启并完成了固件的上传,命令行界面将输出:

Erase  : [====================] 100.0%
Program: [====================] 100.0%
Verify : [====================] 100.0%
Rebooting.

[100%] Built target upload

# 连接至控制台

现在通过串口或USB连接到系统控制台。 按ENTER将调出 shell 提示:

nsh>

输入“help”并按回车键

nsh> help
  help usage:  help [-v] [<cmd>]

  [           df          kill        mkfifo      ps          sleep       
  ?           echo        losetup     mkrd        pwd         test        
  cat         exec        ls          mh          rm          umount      
  cd          exit        mb          mount       rmdir       unset       
  cp          free        mkdir       mv          set         usleep      
  dd          help        mkfatfs     mw          sh          xd          

Builtin Apps:
  reboot
  perf
  top
  ..
  px4_simple_app
  ..
  sercon
  serdis

请注意,px4_simple_app现在是可用命令的一部分。 通过键入px4_simple_app并输入回车启动它:

nsh> px4_simple_app
Hello Sky!

该应用程序现在已正确注册到系统中,并且可以扩展以实际执行实用的任务。

# 测试应用(SITL)

如果您使用 SITL,PX4 控制台会自动启动(请参阅构建代码>第一次构建(使用 jMAVSim 模拟器))。 与nsh 控制台(请参阅上一节)相同,您可以键入help以查看内置程序列表。

输入px4_simple_app来运行这个最小的应用程序。

pxh> px4_simple_app
INFO  [px4_simple_app] Hello Sky!

现在可以扩展该应用程序以实际执行实用的任务

# 订阅传感器数据

为了做一些实用的事情,应用程序需要订阅输入和发布输出(例如电机或伺服命令)。

PX4 硬件抽象的好处在这里发挥作用! 无需以任何方式与传感器驱动程序交互,如果板或传感器更新,也无需更新您的应用程序。 为了实现这一功能,我们使用了 POSIX 系统调用函数 [poll()](http://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/007908799/xsh/poll.html) 。

应用程序之间的每个消息通道称为主题。 对于本教程,我们感兴趣的主题是sensor_combined (opens new window),它拥有了整个系统的同步传感器数据。

订阅主题很简单:

#include <uORB/topics/sensor_combined.h>
..
int sensor_sub_fd = orb_subscribe(ORB_ID(sensor_combined));

sensor_sub_fd是一个主题句柄,它可以用于非常有效地执行阻塞等待新数据。 当前线程进入休眠状态,一旦有新数据可用就会被调度器自动唤醒,等待时不消耗任何 CPU 周期。 为此,我们使用poll() (opens new window) POSIX 系统调用。

添加poll()到订阅看起来像(伪代码,在下面可查找完整的实现):

#include <poll.h>
#include <uORB/topics/sensor_combined.h>
..
int sensor_sub_fd = orb_subscribe(ORB_ID(sensor_combined));

/* one could wait for multiple topics with this technique, just using one here */
px4_pollfd_struct_t fds[] = {
    { .fd = sensor_sub_fd,   .events = POLLIN },
};

while (true) {
    /* wait for sensor update of 1 file descriptor for 1000 ms (1 second) */
    int poll_ret = px4_poll(fds, 1, 1000);
    ..
    if (fds[0].revents & POLLIN) {
        /* obtained data for the first file descriptor */
        struct sensor_combined_s raw;
        /* copy sensors raw data into local buffer */
        orb_copy(ORB_ID(sensor_combined), sensor_sub_fd, &raw);
        PX4_INFO("Accelerometer:\t%8.4f\t%8.4f\t%8.4f",
                    (double)raw.accelerometer_m_s2[0],
                    (double)raw.accelerometer_m_s2[1],
                    (double)raw.accelerometer_m_s2[2]);
    }
}

再次编译应用程序可以输入:

make

# 测试 uORB 消息订阅

最后一步是通过在 nsh shell 中键入以下内容来启动您的应用程序作为后台进程/任务:

px4_simple_app &

您的应用程序将在控制台中显示 5 个传感器值(译者注:需要使用后面的完整示例中的代码,如果使用上面的伪代码会连续输出并无法退出),然后退出:

[px4_simple_app] Accelerometer:   0.0483          0.0821          0.0332
[px4_simple_app] Accelerometer:   0.0486          0.0820          0.0336
[px4_simple_app] Accelerometer:   0.0487          0.0819          0.0327
[px4_simple_app] Accelerometer:   0.0482          0.0818          0.0323
[px4_simple_app] Accelerometer:   0.0482          0.0827          0.0331
[px4_simple_app] Accelerometer:   0.0489          0.0804          0.0328

提示

完整应用程序的模块模板可用于编写可从命令行控制的后台进程。

# 发布数据

要使用计算出的输出,下一步是发布结果。 下面我们将展示如何发布姿态主题。

注解

这里我们选取 attitude topic 是因为 mavlink app 会自动将该 topic 中的数据转发至地面控制站,这样可以方便我们查看这些结果。

接口非常简单:初始化要发布的主题struct并发布主题:

#include <uORB/topics/vehicle_attitude.h>
..
/* advertise attitude topic */
struct vehicle_attitude_s att;
memset(&att, 0, sizeof(att));
orb_advert_t att_pub_fd = orb_advertise(ORB_ID(vehicle_attitude), &att);

在主循环中,随时发布信息:

orb_publish(ORB_ID(vehicle_attitude), att_pub_fd, &att);

# 完整的示例代码

下面是完整的示例代码 (opens new window)

/****************************************************************************
 *
 *   Copyright (c) 2012-2019 PX4 Development Team. All rights reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 *
 * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
 *    the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
 *    distribution.
 * 3. Neither the name PX4 nor the names of its contributors may be
 *    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
 *    without specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
 * "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
 * LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
 * FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
 * COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
 * INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING,
 * BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS
 * OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED
 * AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
 * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
 * ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
 * POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
 *
 ****************************************************************************/

/**
 * @file px4_simple_app.c
 * Minimal application example for PX4 autopilot
 *
 * @author Example User <mail@example.com>
 */

#include <px4_platform_common/px4_config.h>
#include <px4_platform_common/tasks.h>
#include <px4_platform_common/posix.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <poll.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <math.h>

#include <uORB/uORB.h>
#include <uORB/topics/sensor_combined.h>
#include <uORB/topics/vehicle_attitude.h>

__EXPORT int px4_simple_app_main(int argc, char *argv[]);

int px4_simple_app_main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    PX4_INFO("Hello Sky!");

    /* subscribe to sensor_combined topic */
    int sensor_sub_fd = orb_subscribe(ORB_ID(sensor_combined));
    /* limit the update rate to 5 Hz */
    orb_set_interval(sensor_sub_fd, 200);

    /* advertise attitude topic */
    struct vehicle_attitude_s att;
    memset(&att, 0, sizeof(att));
    orb_advert_t att_pub = orb_advertise(ORB_ID(vehicle_attitude), &att);

    /* one could wait for multiple topics with this technique, just using one here */
    px4_pollfd_struct_t fds[] = {
        { .fd = sensor_sub_fd,   .events = POLLIN },
        /* there could be more file descriptors here, in the form like:
         * { .fd = other_sub_fd,   .events = POLLIN },
         */
    };

    int error_counter = 0;

    for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
        /* wait for sensor update of 1 file descriptor for 1000 ms (1 second) */
        int poll_ret = px4_poll(fds, 1, 1000);

        /* handle the poll result */
        if (poll_ret == 0) {
            /* this means none of our providers is giving us data */
            PX4_ERR("Got no data within a second");

        } else if (poll_ret < 0) {
            /* this is seriously bad - should be an emergency */
            if (error_counter < 10 || error_counter % 50 == 0) {
                /* use a counter to prevent flooding (and slowing us down) */
                PX4_ERR("ERROR return value from poll(): %d", poll_ret);
            }

            error_counter++;

        } else {

            if (fds[0].revents & POLLIN) {
                /* obtained data for the first file descriptor */
                struct sensor_combined_s raw;
                /* copy sensors raw data into local buffer */
                orb_copy(ORB_ID(sensor_combined), sensor_sub_fd, &raw);
                PX4_INFO("Accelerometer:\t%8.4f\t%8.4f\t%8.4f",
                     (double)raw.accelerometer_m_s2[0],
                     (double)raw.accelerometer_m_s2[1],
                     (double)raw.accelerometer_m_s2[2]);

                /* set att and publish this information for other apps
                 the following does not have any meaning, it's just an example
                */
                att.q[0] = raw.accelerometer_m_s2[0];
                att.q[1] = raw.accelerometer_m_s2[1];
                att.q[2] = raw.accelerometer_m_s2[2];

                orb_publish(ORB_ID(vehicle_attitude), att_pub, &att);
            }

            /* there could be more file descriptors here, in the form like:
             * if (fds[1..n].revents & POLLIN) {}
             */
        }
    }

    PX4_INFO("exiting");

    return 0;
}

# 运行完整的示例

最后运行你的应用程序:

px4_simple_app

如果您启动QGroundControl,您可以检查实时图中的传感器值(Analyze> MAVLink Inspector (opens new window) )。

# 总结

本教程涵盖了所有开发基本 PX4 自动驾驶仪应用程序的内容。 请记住,此处 (opens new window)提供了 uORB 消息/主题的完整列表并且可通过标题查寻,以供参考。

此处可找到更多信息和故障排除/常见陷阱:uORB

下一页提供了一个模板,用于编写具有启动和停止功能的完整应用程序。