# PX4 系统架构概述
下面的架构图对 PX4 的各个积木模块以及各模块之间的联系进行了一个详细的概述。 图的上半部分包括了中间件模块，而下半部分展示的则是飞行控制栈的组件。
monospace 字体表示)。 通常来说一个图中的积木块对应一个功能模块。
上图中的箭头表示的是各个模块之间 最重要的 信息流连接。 实际运行时各模块之间信息流的连接数目比图中展示出来的要多很多，且部分数据（比如：配置参数）会被大部分模块访问。 For more information about each of these modules see the Modules & Commands Reference. :::
The arrows show the information flow for the most important connections between the modules. 使用 发布-订阅 消息总线这个方案意味着：
飞行控制栈是针对自主无人机设计的导航、制导和控制算法的集合。 它包括了为固定翼、旋翼和 VTOL 无人机设计的控制器，以及相应的姿态、位置估计器。
- 系统是 “响应式” 的 — 系统异步运行，新数据抵达时系统立即进行更新。
下图展示了飞行控制栈的整体架构， 下图展示了飞行控制栈的整体架构， 它包含了从传感器数据、 RC 控制量输入 到自主飞行控制（制导控制器，Navigator ），再到电机、舵机控制（执行器，Actuators）的全套通路。
The flight stack is a collection of guidance, navigation and control algorithms for autonomous drones. It includes controllers for fixed-wing, multirotor and VTOL airframes as well as estimators for attitude and position.
The following diagram shows an overview of the building blocks of the flight stack. It contains the full pipeline from sensors, RC input and autonomous flight control (Navigator), down to the motor or servo control (Actuators).
An estimator takes one or more sensor inputs, combines them, and computes a vehicle state (for example the attitude from IMU sensor data).
A controller is a component that takes a setpoint and a measurement or estimated state (process variable) as input. Its goal is to adjust the value of the process variable such that it matches the setpoint. The output is a correction to eventually reach that setpoint. For example the position controller takes position setpoints as inputs, the process variable is the currently estimated position, and the output is an attitude and thrust setpoint that move the vehicle towards the desired position.
A mixer takes force commands (such as "turn right") and translates them into individual motor commands, while ensuring that some limits are not exceeded. This translation is specific for a vehicle type and depends on various factors, such as the motor arrangements with respect to the center of gravity, or the vehicle's rotational inertia.
The middleware consists primarily of device drivers for embedded sensors, communication with the external world (companion computer, GCS, etc.) and the uORB publish-subscribe message bus.
In addition, the middleware includes a simulation layer that allows PX4 flight code to run on a desktop operating system and control a computer modeled vehicle in a simulated "world".
Since the modules wait for message updates, typically the drivers define how fast a module updates. Most of the IMU drivers sample the data at 1kHz, integrate it and publish with 250Hz. Other parts of the system, such as the
navigator, don't need such a high update rate, and thus run considerably slower.
The message update rates can be inspected in real-time on the system by running
PX4 runs on various operating systems that provide a POSIX-API (such as Linux, macOS, NuttX or QuRT). It should also have some form of real-time scheduling (e.g. FIFO).
The inter-module communication (using uORB) is based on shared memory. The whole PX4 middleware runs in a single address space, i.e. memory is shared between all modules.
The system is designed such that with minimal effort it would be possible to run each module in separate address space (parts that would need to be changed include
There are 2 different ways that a module can be executed:
任务 （Tasks）: 模块在它自己的任务中运行, 具有自己的堆栈和进程优先级（这是更常见的方法）。
- All the tasks must behave co-operatively as they cannot interrupt each other.
- Multiple work queue tasks can run on a queue, and there can be multiple queues.
- A work queue task is scheduled by specifying a fixed time in the future, or via uORB topic update callback.
The advantage of running modules on a work queue is that it uses less RAM, and potentially results in fewer task switches. The disadvantages are that work queue tasks are not allowed to sleep or poll on a message, or do blocking IO (such as reading from a file). Long-running tasks (doing heavy computation) should potentially also run in a separate task or at least a separate work queue.
px4_task_spawn_cmd() is used to launch new tasks (NuttX) or threads (POSIX - Linux/macOS) that run independently from the calling (parent) task:
independent_task = px4_task_spawn_cmd(
"commander", // 进程名称
SCHED_DEFAULT, // 调度类型（RR 或 FIFO）
SCHED_PRIORITY_DEFAULT + 40, // 调度优先级
3600, // 新任务或线程的堆栈大小
commander_thread_main, // 任务（或线程的主函数）
(char * const *)&argv // Void 指针传递到新任务
NuttX (opens new window) is the primary RTOS for running PX4 on a flight-control board. It is open source (BSD license), light-weight, efficient and very stable.
Modules are executed as tasks: they have their own file descriptor lists, but they share a single address space. A task can still start one or more threads that share the file descriptor list.
Each task/thread has a fixed-size stack, and there is a periodic task which checks that all stacks have enough free space left (based on stack coloring).
On Linux or macOS, PX4 runs in a single process, and the modules run in their own threads (there is no distinction between tasks and threads as on NuttX).