# PX4 Reference Flight Controller Design
# Binary Compatibility
All boards manufactured to a particular design are expected to be binary compatible (i.e. can run the same firmware). From 2018 we will offer a binary compatibility test suite that will allow us to verify and certify this compatibility.
FMU generations 1-3 were designed as open hardware, while FMU generations 4 and 5 provided only pinout and power supply specifications (schematics were created by individual manufacturers). In order to better ensure compatibility, FMUv6 and onward will return to a complete reference design model.
# Reference Design Generations
- FMUv1: Development board (STM32F407, 128 KB RAM, 1MB flash, schematics (opens new window)) (no longer supported by PX4)
- FMUv2: Pixhawk (STM32F427, 168 MHz, 192 KB RAM, 1MB flash, schematics (opens new window))
- FMUv3: Pixhawk variants with 2MB flash (3DR Pixhawk 2 (Solo), Hex Pixhawk 2.1, Holybro Pixfalcon, 3DR Pixhawk Mini, STM32F427, 168 MHz, 256 KB RAM, 2 MB flash, schematics (opens new window))
- FMUv4: Pixracer (STM32F427, 168 MHz, 256 KB RAM, 2 MB flash, pinout (opens new window))
- FMUv4 PRO: Drotek Pixhawk 3 PRO (STM32F469, 180 MHz, 384 KB RAM, 2 MB flash, pinout (opens new window))
- FMUv5: Holybro Pixhawk 4 (STM32F765, 216 MHz, 512 KB RAM, 2 MB flash, pinout (opens new window))
- FMUv6: work in progress, final name TBD, variant 6s (STM32H7, 400 MHz, 2 MB RAM, 2 MB flash) and variant 6i (i.MX RT1050, 600 MHz, 512 KB RAM, external flash)
# Main/IO Function Breakdown
The diagram below shows the division of bus and functional responsibilities between the FMU and I/O boards in a Pixhawk-series flight controller (the boards are incorporated into a single physical module).
Some Pixhawk-series controllers are built without the I/O board in order to reduce space or complexity, or to better address certain board use-cases. In this case the I/O driver is not started.
Manufacturer flight controller variants without an I/O board are often named as a "diminutive" of a version that includes the I/O board: e.g. Pixhawk 4 Mini, _CUAV v5 nano.
Build targets that must run on flight controllers with an I/O board map the FMU outputs to
AUX and the I/0 outputs to
MAIN (see diagram above).
If the target is run on hardware where I/O board is not present or has been disabled, the PWM MAIN outputs will not be present.
You might see this, for example, by running
px4_fmu-v5_default on Pixhawk 4 (with IO) and Pixhawk 4 Mini (without I/O).
Note that if a build target is only ever intended to run on a flight controller that does not have an I/0 board, then the FMU outputs are mapped to
MAIN (for example, the
px4_fmu-v4_default target for Pixracer).
PX4 PWM outputs are mapped to either
AUX ports in Actuator Configuration.