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PX4 소프트웨어 빌드

PX4 firmware can be built from source code on the console or in an IDE, for both simulated and hardware targets.

You need to build PX4 in order to use simulators, or if you want to modify PX4 and create a custom build. If you just want to try out PX4 on real hardware then load the prebuilt binaries using QGroundControl (there is no need to follow these instructions).

:::note 이 지침을 따르기 전에 먼저 호스트 운영 체제와 대상 하드웨어에 대한 개발자 도구 모음을 설치하여야 합니다. If you have any problems after following these steps see the Troubleshooting section below. 이 저장소를 Github 계정과 연결된 복사본을 만들어, 이 원본을 로컬 컴퓨터에 복제하는 것이 좋습니다.

PX4 소스 코드 다운로드

PX4 소스 코드는 Github의 PX4/PX4-Autopilot 저장소에 저장되어 있습니다.

To get the very latest (main branch) version onto your computer, enter the following command into a terminal:

git clone --recursive

Note that you may already have done this when installing the Developer Toolchain

This is all you need to do in order to get the latest code. If needed you can also get the source code specific to a particular release. GIT Examples provides a lot more information working with releases and contributing to PX4.

First Build (Using a Simulator)

먼저 콘솔 환경에서 시뮬레이션 대상을 빌드합니다. 이를 통하여 실제 하드웨어와 IDE로 사용전에 시스템 설정을 검증할 수 있습니다.

Navigate into the PX4-Autopilot directory. Depending on your operating system you will have installed either Gazebo SITL or Gazebo Classic SITL (if you don't know which you can try both).

This will bring up the PX4 console:

PX4 Console

You may need to start QGroundControl before proceeding, as the default PX4 configuration requires a ground control connection before takeoff. This can be downloaded from here. NuttX 또는 Pixhawk 기반 보드용으로 빌드하려면, PX4-Autopilot 디렉토리로 이동한 다음 보드용 빌드 타겟으로 make를 호출하십시오.

The drone can be flown by typing the following command (as shown in the console above):

pxh> commander takeoff

The vehicle will take off and you'll see this in the simulator UI:


The drone can be landed by typing commander land and the whole simulation can be stopped by doing CTRL+C (or by entering shutdown).

Flying the simulation with the ground control station is closer to the real operation of the vehicle. Click on a location in the map while the vehicle is flying (takeoff flight mode) and enable the slider. This will reposition the vehicle.

QGroundControl GoTo

NuttX/Pixhawk 기반 보드

NuttX용 빌드

예를 들어, Pixhawk 4 하드웨어용으로 빌드하려면 다음 명령을 사용할 수 있습니다.

성공적인 실행은 다음과 유사한 출력으로 종료됩니다.

cd PX4-Autopilot
make px4_fmu-v4_default

A successful run will end with similar output to:

-- 빌드 파일은 /home/youruser/src/PX4-Autopilot/build/px4_fmu-v4_default에 작성되었습니다.
[954/954] Creating /home/youruser/src/PX4-Autopilot/build/px4_fmu-v4_default/px4_fmu-v4_default.px4

The first part of the build target px4_fmu-v4 indicates the target flight controller hardware for the firmware. The suffix, in this case _default, indicates a firmware configuration, such as supporting or omitting particular features.

The _default suffix is optional. For example, make px4_fmu-v5 and px4_fmu-v5_default result in the same firmware. 이 저장소를 Github 계정과 연결된 복사본을 만들어, 이 원본을 로컬 컴퓨터에 복제하는 것이 좋습니다.

The following list shows the build commands for the Pixhawk standard boards:


You must use a supported version of GCC to build this board (e.g. the same as used by CI/docker) or remove modules from the build. PX4가 보드의 1MB 플래시 제한에 가깝기 때문에, 지원되지 않는 GCC로 빌드가 실패할 수 있습니다. 이 저장소를 Github 계정과 연결된 복사본을 만들어, 이 원본을 로컬 컴퓨터에 복제하는 것이 좋습니다.

  • 2MB 플래시가 있는 Pixhawk 1: make px4_fmu-v3_default

Build commands for non-Pixhawk NuttX fight controllers (and for all other-boards) are provided in the documentation for the individual flight controller boards.

펌웨어 업로드 (보드 플래싱)

Append upload to the make commands to upload the compiled binary to the autopilot hardware via USB. For example

make px4_fmu-v4_default upload

A successful run will end with this output:

Erase  : [====================] 100.0%
Program: [====================] 100.0%
Verify : [====================] 100.0%

[100%] Built target upload

기타 보드

Build commands for other boards are given the board-specific flight controller pages (usually under a heading Building Firmware).

You can also list all configuration targets using the command:

make list_config_targets

그래픽 IDE에서의 컴파일

많은 빌드 문제는 일치하지 않는 하위 모듈이나 불완전하게 정리된 빌드 환경으로 인하여 발생합니다. It is easy to set up and can be used to compile PX4 for both simulation and hardware environments.

문제 해결

일반 빌드 오류

Many build problems are caused by either mismatching submodules or an incompletely cleaned-up build environment. Updating the submodules and doing a distclean can fix these kinds of errors:

git submodule update --recursive
make distclean

Flash overflowed by XXX bytes

The region 'flash' overflowed by XXXX bytes error indicates that the firmware is too large for the target hardware platform. This is common for make px4_fmu-v2_default builds, where the flash size is limited to 1MB.

If you're building the vanilla master branch, the most likely cause is using an unsupported version of GCC. In this case, install the version specified in the Developer Toolchain instructions.

If building your own branch, it is possible that you have increased the firmware size over the 1MB limit. PX4 빌드 시스템은 많은 수의 파일을 오픈하므로, 이 갯수를 초과할 수 있습니다.

macOS: 열린 파일이 너무 많음 오류

MacOS allows a default maximum of 256 open files in all running processes. The PX4 build system opens a large number of files, so you may exceed this number.

The build toolchain will then report Too many open files for many files, as shown below:

/usr/local/Cellar/gcc-arm-none-eabi/20171218/bin/../lib/gcc/arm-none-eabi/7.2.1/../../../../arm-none-eabi/bin/ld: cannot find NuttX/nuttx/fs/libfs.a: Too many open files

The solution is to increase the maximum allowed number of open files (e.g. to 300). You can do this in the macOS Terminal for each session:

macOS Catalina: cmake 실행 문제

As of macOS Catalina 10.15.1 there may be problems when trying to build the simulator with cmake. 다음을 사용하여 누락된 종속성을 확인하여 이러한 경우인지 확인할 수 있습니다.

xcode-select --install
sudo ln -s /Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/SDKs/MacOSX.sdk/usr/include/* /usr/local/include/

Ubuntu 18.04: arm_none_eabi_gcc와 관련된 컴파일 오류

Build issues related to arm_none_eabi_gccmay be due to a broken g++ toolchain installation. You can verify that this is the case by checking for missing dependencies using:

arm-none-eabi-gcc --version
arm-none-eabi-g++ --version
arm-none-eabi-gdb --version
arm-none-eabi-size --version

Example of bash output with missing dependencies:

arm-none-eabi-gdb --version
arm-none-eabi-gdb: command not found

This can be resolved by removing and reinstalling the compiler.

Ubuntu 18.04: Visual Studio Code는 이 큰 작업 영역에서 파일 변경 사항을 감시할 수 없습니다.

See Visual Studio Code IDE (VSCode) > Troubleshooting.

Python 패키지를 가져오지 못했습니다.

"Failed to import" errors when running the make px4_sitl jmavsim command indicates that some Python packages are not installed (where expected).

Failed to import jinja2: No module named 'jinja2'
You may need to install it using:
    pip3 install --user jinja2

다음과 같이 종속성을 명시적으로 설치하여, 이 문제를 해결할 수 있습니다.

You should be able to fix this by explicitly installing the dependencies as shown:

pip3 install --user pyserial empty toml numpy pandas jinja2 pyyaml pyros-genmsg packaging

PX4 빌드 타겟 만들기

The previous sections showed how you can call make to build a number of different targets, start simulators, use IDEs etc. This section shows how make options are constructed and how to find the available choices.

The full syntax to call make with a particular configuration and initialization file is:



  • VENDOR: The manufacturer of the board: px4, aerotenna, airmind, atlflight, auav, beaglebone, intel, nxp, etc. The vendor name for Pixhawk series boards is px4.
  • MODEL: The board model "model": sitl, fmu-v2, fmu-v3, fmu-v4, fmu-v5, navio2, etc.
  • VARIANT: Indicates particular configurations: e.g. bootloader, cyphal, which contain components that are not present in the default configuration. 가장 일반적으로 이것은 기본값이며 생략 가능합니다.


You can get a list of all available CONFIGURATION_TARGET options using the command below:

make list_config_targets


  • VIEWER: This is the simulator ("viewer") to launch and connect: gz, gazebo, jmavsim, none


none can be used if you want to launch PX4 and wait for a simulator (jmavsim, Gazebo, Gazebo Classic, or some other simulator). 예를 들어, make px4_sitl none_iris는 시뮬레이터 없이(그러나 홍채 기체가 있는) PX4를 시작합니다. 이 저장소를 Github 계정과 연결된 복사본을 만들어, 이 원본을 로컬 컴퓨터에 복제하는 것이 좋습니다.


You can get a list of all available VIEWER_MODEL_DEBUGGER_WORLD options using the command below:

make px4_sitl list_vmd_make_targets


  • CONFIGURATION_TARGETVIEWER_MODEL_DEBUGGER에 있는 대부분의 값에는 기본값이 있으므로 선택사항입니다. For example, gazebo-classic is equivalent to gazebo-classic_iris or gazebo-classic_iris_none.
  • 두 개의 다른 설정 사이에 기본값을 지정하려는 경우에는, 세 개의 밑줄을 사용할 수 있습니다. For example, gazebo-classic___gdb is equivalent to gazebo-classic_iris_gdb.
  • VIEWER_MODEL_DEBUGGER없음 값을 사용하여 PX4를 시작하고 시뮬레이터를 실행할 수 있습니다. For example start PX4 using make px4_sitl_default none and jMAVSim using ./Tools/simulation/jmavsim/ -l.

The VENDOR_MODEL_VARIANT options map to particular px4board configuration files in the PX4 source tree under the /boards directory. Specifically VENDOR_MODEL_VARIANT maps to a configuration file boards/VENDOR/MODEL/VARIANT.px4board (e.g. px4_fmu-v5_default corresponds to boards/px4/fmu-v5/default.px4board).

추가 make 대상은 관련 섹션에서 설명합니다.

펌웨어 버전과 Git 태그

The PX4 Firmware Version and Custom Firmware Version are published using the MAVLink AUTOPILOT_VERSION message, and displayed in the QGroundControl Setup > Summary airframe panel:

Firmware info

These are extracted at build time from the active git tag for your repo tree. The git tag should be formatted as <PX4-version>-<vendor-version> (e.g. the tag in the image above was set to v1.8.1-2.22.1).


If you use a different git tag format, versions information may not be displayed properly.